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Quality Care

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

A goal of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is not simply to diagnose a person with a mental health disorder, but to look at the person as a whole, and assist in the displacement of maladaptive thoughts, coping skills, emotions and behaviors, with more constructive and adaptive ones (Gatchel & Rollings, 2008). Techniques are also learned to help challenge and replace errors in thinking, otherwise known as cognitive distortions. These can look like thoughts such as, overgeneralizing, magnifying negatives, minimizing positives and catastrophizing; replacement of these with more realistic and effective thoughts, will in turn decrease self-defeating behavior and emotional distress Hassett & Gevirtz (2009).

CBT has a foundational basis formed from a combination of the basic principles from cognitive and behavioral psychology (Beck, 2011). CBT is a "problem-focused" and "action-oriented" form of therapy, treating specific issues relating to a diagnosed mental health disorder. Therapist's will assist and work together with the individual to find and practice the most effective strategies to address the identified goals, therefore decreasing the symptoms of said disorder (Schacter et al., 2010). 

Review studies found CBT alone, is effective for treating less severe forms of depression, (Gartlehner et al., 2017), anxietypost-traumatic stress disorder, (McGuire et al., 2014), substance abuseeating disorders, major depressive disorder, and borderline personality disorder (Davidson et al., 2014). However, research further suggests, CBT is most effective when combined with medication (Hassett & Gevirtz 2009). CBT is also recommended as the top-line of therapy for the majority of psychological disorders in children and adolescents, including conduct disorder and aggression (Hollon et al.,)(Benjamin et al., 2011). 

  1. Beck JS (2011), Cognitive behavior therapy: Basics and beyond (2nd ed.), New York, NY: The Guilford Press, pp. 19–20

  2. Benjamin CL, Puleo CM, Settipani CA, et al. (2011), "History of cognitive-behavioral therapy in youth", Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America,  (2): 179–189, 

  3. Davidson, Kate; Gumley, Andrew; Millar, Humera; Drummond, Leigh; Macaulay, Fiona; Tyrer, Peter; Seivewright, Helen; Tata, Philip; Norrie, John; Palmer, Stephen; Murray, Heather (2006). "A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Rationale for Trial, Method, and Description of Sample". Journal of Personality Disorders.  (5): 431–449.

  4. Gartlehner, Gerald; Wagner, Gernot; Matyas, Nina; Titscher, Viktoria; Greimel, Judith; Lux, Linda; Gaynes, Bradley N; Viswanathan, Meera; Patel, Sheila (June 2017). "Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for major depressive disorder: review of systematic reviews". BMJ Open.  (6): e014912.

  5. Gatchel RJ, Rollings KH (2008). "Evidence-informed management of chronic low back pain with cognitive behavioral therapy". The Spine Journal.  (1): 40–4.

  6. Hassett AL, Gevirtz RN (May 2009). "Nonpharmacologic treatment for fibromyalgia: patient education, cognitive-behavioral therapy, relaxation techniques, and complementary and alternative medicine". Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America.  (2): 393–407. 

  7. Hayes SC, Villatte M, Levin M, Hildebrandt M (2011). "Open, aware, and active: contextual approaches as an emerging trend in the behavioral and cognitive therapies". Annual Review of Clinical Psychology.  (1): 141–68. 

  8. Hollon SD, Beck AT. Lambert MJ (ed.). Bergin and Garfield's Handbook of Psychotherapy.

  9. McGuire, Joseph F.; Piacentini, John; Brennan, Erin A.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Small, Brent J.; Storch, Eric A. (2014). "A meta-analysis of behavior therapy for Tourette Syndrome". Journal of Psychiatric Research. : 106–112

  10. Schacter DL, Gilbert DT, Wegner DM (2010), Psychology (2nd ed.), New York: Worth Pub, p. 600

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Service
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